The Best Programming Languages ​​to Learn in 2023


In the vast universe of technology, programming languages ​​form the foundation and form the basis for creating a wide variety of software applications. However, for those entering this universe, the multitude of languages ​​available can be quite overwhelming.

To make your journey easier, we present a comprehensive guide to the best programming languages. We explain their strengths, use cases, and why they might be the right (or wrong) solution for you.


JavaScript, not to be confused with Java, is the backbone of modern web development. Mainly used for frontend development, JavaScript breathes life into static web pages by enabling interactive elements. The rise of Node.js has expanded the scope of JavaScript to include server-side scripting as well. The ubiquity of JavaScript throughout the web means that a thorough understanding of it opens up tremendous opportunities. However, its sometimes inconsistent design and single-threaded nature may not make it suitable for complex, high-performance applications.


Python, known for its clear and readable syntax, is a high-level language that makes a good starting point for beginners. It offers an easy learning curve without compromising on its powerful features. Python’s versatility spans a wide variety of applications, from web and software development to data analysis, artificial intelligence, and machine learning. Used by tech giants like Google and NASA, it offers a wealth of opportunities for an aspiring programmer. However, Python may not be as efficient as languages ​​like C or Java for applications that require intensive computational power or execution speed.


PHP, an open-source server-side scripting language, is based on a significant portion of the web. It is mainly used to develop dynamic web pages or web-based applications and can be directly embedded in HTML code. PHP’s ease of deployment across platforms and integration with various database systems make it suitable for web development. It is estimated that PHP powers almost 70% of all websites in the world today.


Java was developed by Sun Microsystems, now owned by Oracle. It is an object-oriented language that is commonly used in enterprise environments. It is a general-purpose language known for its write-once, run-anywhere capability. This means that once Java code is compiled, it can be run on any platform that supports Java without the need for recompilation. Java’s robustness and scalability make it perfect for large-scale applications. It’s the main language for developing Android apps, but its verbose syntax might be daunting for beginners.


C is one of the oldest and most influential languages ​​in the history of programming. It was developed by Dennis Ritchie at Bell Labs in the 1970s for the Unix operating system. Today, C is widely used for systems programming, operating system implementations, and embedded systems applications due to its design that provides constructs that efficiently map to typical machine instructions. Because of its stability and extremely efficient code, C remains a popular choice for many applications and platforms.


C++ is a general-purpose, object-oriented language known for its powerful applications. It offers programmers a high level of control over system resources. While it can be used for tasks like web and software development, C++ is mainly used in areas where performance is critical – game development, real-time systems, and even in creating compilers for other languages. Due to its complex syntax and manual maintenance required, it is a demanding language for beginners.


C# (pronounced C Sharp) is a language developed by Microsoft that is commonly used in the .NET framework. It is mainly used for Windows desktop applications and game development using the Unity game engine. C#’s syntax is similar to Java’s, making it easier to understand for those familiar with Java. Despite being powerful in its ecosystem, its use is less common compared to languages ​​like Python or JavaScript.


Apple’s brainchild, Swift is designed for app development for macOS, iOS, watchOS, and tvOS. Designed to be simple and concise, yet powerful, Swift aims to offer a modern language for the Apple ecosystem, replacing the older Objective-C. It is an excellent choice for those who want to develop solely for Apple platforms.


Ruby is a dynamic, open-source programming language that emphasizes simplicity and productivity. Known for its elegant syntax and easy to read and write, Ruby is another excellent choice for beginners. Ruby gained notoriety with the Ruby on Rails framework, which simplified the process of building web applications, making it a popular choice for startups and web services.


Go, also known as Golang, is an open source programming language developed by Google. Go is known for its simplicity and efficiency—traits that make it suitable for building web servers, data pipelines, and even machine learning packages. With syntax similar to C, Go offers a much simpler and cleaner landscape, making it easier for newbies to get started.


TypeScript, a statically typed superset of JavaScript, was designed to make the process of building large applications more efficient and manageable. TypeScript adds static typing to JavaScript, providing benefits such as early error checking and richer IDE capabilities. This advantage makes TypeScript a popular choice for large projects. However, the need to transpile to JavaScript for browser compatibility reasons may be seen as an extra step by some developers.


Kotlin is a statically typed, general-purpose programming language developed by JetBrains. It’s fully Java compatible, which means it can be used anywhere Java is used today, including Android app development. Kotlin aims to be a more modern and succinct version of Java, and to address many of the criticisms Java has received over the years.


Rust is a systems programming language that runs incredibly fast, prevents segfaults and guarantees thread safety. Increasingly popular for system-level tasks and web assembly, it provides memory security without garbage collection. While Rust’s steep learning curve may intimidate some, Rust is known for its supportive and inclusive community.


MATLAB is a high-level language and interactive environment for numerical computing, visualization, and programming. Commonly used in science and research, MATLAB is perfect for mathematical applications, signal processing, and building neural networks. Due to its high-level nature, it is not suitable for low-level tasks or web development.


R is a language and environment for statistical computing and graphics. It is mainly used by statisticians and data miners to develop statistical software and data analysis. Although R has a steep learning curve, it is very extensible and is gaining popularity due to growing interest in big data.


Scala is a type-safe JVM language that combines both object-oriented and functional programming into an extremely concise, logical, and powerful language. It is used by companies that need powerful systems like LinkedIn and Twitter. Scala can be complex to learn due to its sophisticated and dense syntax.


Julia is a high-performance dynamic programming language for technical computing with a syntax familiar to users of other technical computing environments. It is used for machine learning, data science, scientific computing, and parallel computing. Julia was designed to solve the “two language problem” where programmers often need to write prototypes in a dynamic language like Python and then translate the prototypes into a compiled language like C or Java for faster execution. Julia’s creators wanted to create a language that was both easy to write (like Python) and fast to execute (like C).


Dart is a Google-developed client-optimized language for building fast apps on any platform. It is mainly used to build mobile, desktop and web apps. The language is object-oriented and uses a C-style syntax. Dart places great emphasis on smooth and complex UI creation, making it the language of choice for Flutter, Google’s cross-platform app development framework.


Lua is a lightweight, multi-paradigm, high-level programming language designed primarily for embedded use in applications. Lua is cross-platform because it’s written in ANSI C and has a relatively simple C API. Lua’s design focuses on embedding, with features for extending and embedding in host applications, and associative arrays with string keys as the primary data structure. It is commonly used in game development, scripting, and embedded systems.


Perl is a high-level, universally applicable, interpreted, dynamic programming language. Perl was originally developed by Larry Wall in 1987 as a universal Unix scripting language to simplify report processing. Since then, it has undergone many changes and revisions and has gained great popularity among programmers. Perl’s powerful performance for text and string manipulation tasks makes it a popular choice for CGI scripting, network programming, system administration, and graphics programming.


Scratch is a visual programming language developed by the Lifelong Kindergarten Group at MIT Media Lab. It was designed to provide young people with an easy way to learn computational thinking and the basics of programming. With Scratch you can code your own interactive stories, games and animations – and share your creations with others in the online community. It’s an excellent introductory language for kids and beginners, encouraging a fun and creative approach to programming.

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